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Novorossiysk (Russian: Новоросси́йск) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. It is the country's main port on the Black Sea and the leading Russian port for importing grain. It is one of the few cities honored with the title of the Hero City. The city sprawls along the shore of the non-freezing Tsemess Bay, which has been recognised since antiquity as one of the superior bays of the Black Sea. The Novorossiysk Commercial Sea Port with the market capitalization of $1,110,000,000 and shares listed at Moscow Exchange and London Stock Exchange serves Russian sea trade with the regions of Asia, the Middle East, Africa, the Mediterranean, and South America. It is the busiest oil port on the Black Sea and the terminus of the pipeline from the Tengiz Field, developed by the Caspian Pipeline Consortium. Novorossiysk is also an industrial city, dependent on steel, food processing, and the production of metal goods and other manufactures. Extensive limestone quarries supply important cement factories in and around the city. The town is home to the Maritime State Academy and Novorossiysk Polytechnic Institute.
Novorossiysk is connected by rail and highways to the main industrial and population centres of Russia, Transcaucasia, and Central Asia. The public transportation within the city boundaries consists of city buses, trolleybuses, and marshrutkas. The closest airport, Anapa Airport, is located in nearby Anapa and offers flights to several major cities in Russia. Novorossiysk is not a resort town, but Anapa to the north and Gelendzhik to the south are. There are several urban settlements under the jurisdiction of Novorossiysk. The most famous is Abrau-Dyurso, which consists of a townlet on the shore of Lake Abrau and a village on the coast of the Black Sea, connected by a winding mountain road. The area of Novorossiysk is one of Russia's main wine-growing regions. The wineries of Abrau-Dyurso, established by Tsar Alexander III in 1870, produce table and sparkling wines for domestic consumption. Abrau-Dyurso is the center of Russia's most important wine-growing region, but in August 2002 a local earth dam located upstream of the Dyurso River collapsed and washed away some of the grape fields in the Dyurso Valley forcing Abrau-Dyurso to import them from other locations.
The settlement of Abrau-Dyurso (Russian: Абрау-Дюрсо) was founded on November 25, 1870 as a royal winery which was to provide wine for the Tsar's household. These plans were brought to fruition twenty-one years later, when Prince Leo Galitzine, renowned for his Crimean vineyards of Massandra and Novy Svet, was appointed Surveyor of Imperial Vineyards at Abrau-Dyurso. It was he who brought to Russia a team of skilled winemakers from France. By 1897, Abrau-Dyurso boasted champagne cellars containing in excess of 13,000 bottles. The Russian Revolution of 1917 brought an end to the Abrau-Dyurso prosperity, if only for a short time. The French specialists fled Russia, but their work was continued by their Russian apprentices. Throughout the Soviet period, Abrau-Dyurso was reputed for its sparkling wine, which was marketed under the name of Sovetskoye Shampanskoye - Soviet Champagne, or "champagne for the people".
In antiquity, the shores of the Tsemess Bay were the site of Bata, an ancient Greek colony that specialized in the grain trade. It is mentioned in the works of Strabo and Ptolemy, among others. Genoese merchants from the Ghisolfi family maintained a trade outpost there in the Middle Ages. From 1722, the bay was commanded by the Ottoman fortress of Sujuk-Qale or Soğucak. After the coastline was ceded to Russia in 1829 as a result of the Russo-Turkish War, Admirals Mikhail Lazarev and Nikolay Raevsky founded an eastern base for the Black Sea Fleet on the shore in 1838. Named after the province of Novorossiya, the port formed a vital link in the chain of forts known as the Black Sea Coastal Line, which stretched south to Sochi. During the rest of the 19th century, Novorossiysk developed rapidly. It was granted city status in 1866 and became the capital of the Black Sea Governorate, the smallest in the Russian Empire, in 1896. In December 1905, the city was the seat of the short-lived Novorossiysk Republic. From August 26, 1918 until March 27, 1920, Novorossiysk was the principal center of Denikin's White Army. Denikin's South Russian Government was moved to Crimea and many Whites escaped from Novorossiysk to Constantinople.
The town was occupied by the Wehrmacht on September 10, 1942, but a small unit of Soviet sailors defended one part of the town, known as Malaya Zemlya, for 225 days beginning on February 4, 1943, and the town was liberated by the Red Army on September 16, 1943. The heroic defense of the port by the sailors allowed the Soviets to retain possession of the city's bay, which prevented the Germans from using the port for supply shipments. Novorossiysk was awarded the title Hero City in 1973.
In 1960, the town was commemorated in Dmitri Shostakovich's work called Novorossiysk Chimes, the Flame of Eternal Glory. In 2003, President Vladimir Putin signed a decree setting up a naval base for the Black Sea Fleet in Novorossiysk. Russia allocated 12.3 billion rubles or about $480 million dollars for the construction of the new base between 2007 and 2012. The construction of other facilities and infrastructure at the base, including units for coastal troops, aviation and logistics, will continue beyond 2012. The Russian lease on port facilities in Sevastopol, Ukraine's main port on the Black Sea, used by the Russian Navy, is set to expire in 2017. The Ukraine was reported to be planning to not renew the lease; however, in April 2010 the Russian and Ukrainian Presidents signed agreements to extend the lease by twenty-five years, with an option of a further extension of five years after this new term expires.